Patrick Kelly’s One Seam Coat

As part of their current exhibition, Patrick Kelly: Runway of Love, the Philadelphia Museum of Art is featuring a web tutorial on the construction of the designer’s one-seam coat. I analyzed Kelly’s technique and partnered with the PMA’s graphic design team to create this feature for the museum’s website. Kelly took a large piece of uncut fabric and used origami-like folds and a single seam to create an oversized cocoon coat. This technique of manipulating fabric instead of cutting and sewing separate pieces to achieve the desired shape has also been employed by designers such as Cristobal Balenciaga and Issey Miyake.

Photo and illustration of Patrick Kelly's one seam coat.

Photo and illustration of Patrick Kelly’s one seam coat.

See the tutorial here.

Patrick Kelly was active  in the 1980s but received little recognition when starting out as a fashion designer in the U.S. His career gained momentum after moving to Paris thanks to a one way ticket he received from an anonymous friend (later revealed to be from his friend and model Pat Cleveland). Kelly’s silhouettes celebrated the shape and size of every woman and his designs reflected his personal cultural background. Kelly’s short but prolific career came to an end when he succumbed to AIDS in 1990.

Patrick Kelly's Love List featured on Philadelphia Museum of Art's website.

Patrick Kelly’s Love List featured on Philadelphia Museum of Art’s website.

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CSA National Symposium 2014: Day 4

The last day of the symposium ties with Day 1 as the most impactful day of the symposium, for me. Rachel M. Sullivan, from Oregon State University presented on a comparison she worked on with Elaine L. Pederson about Western College’s dress styles from 1949 to 1957. Kimberly Chrisman Campbell, Jo Paoletti, and Petra Slinkard held a panel discussion entitled Beyond Material Culture: Sources for Scholarship. As a student  I took away from the presentation and panel tools on how to analyze sources.

Sullivan presented her methods for analyzing dress at Western College, which relied mostly on photographs from magazine editorials and yearbooks. Strong content analysis was her framework all of her sources were print related sources which is a skill that is not emphasized to students. Her completed work to date has resulted in a survey of 1950s women’s dress. Sullivan also has a formula for content analysis to either move forward or backward in the timeline to survey other styles of dress. When talking with her Sullivan is eager to expand her search to more regions in the same time period.

Campbell (an independent scholar), Paoletti (professor and lecturer), and Slinkard (Chicago History Museum) emphasized a depolarization in the way scholars use garments/ accessories and print sources. The arguments made by the presenters included the idea that garments and accessories may not be available to you as a scholar, does that make your work less valid? Does focusing on a specific designer or rich individual limit the scope of dress/costume study? How does access, student vs. independent scholar vs. museum professional, restrict study? The roundtable discussion was lively, the participants and presenters had strong opinions. And while most of the questions were not resolved, as a student observing the interactions between scholars was very eye opening. Many participants saw a strong necessity to think of the garment and then other sources while others agreed that every source that supports the scholars argument should be valued equally. If the roundtable did nothing else, it inspired conversation about changes that could be made to how we think about sources.

The final day was bittersweet. This was my first introduction to many contributors to dress and costume scholarship. Reading an article or book by a contributor is not the same as interacting with them in person. I met students from other programs like NYU, University of Rhode Island, and … who were passionate and as wide eyed as I was. I interacted with founding members and veteran scholars as well as museum professionals that were as new to the CSA as I was.  I want to encourage any student to attend the CSA or any other symposium/conference because interacting with knowledge in real time is worth the ticket price. While there is always room for improvement in any organization, overall the words I would use to describe my experience are warm, inspiring, and fun.

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CSA National Symposium 2014: Day 3


Houndstooth Suit worn by Jacqueline Kennedy on the campaign trail via The John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum

Houndstooth Suit created by Bob Bugnand and worn by Jacqueline Kennedy via The John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum

The third day of the symposium started off with presentations that had a central theme of ingenuity and the different forms ingenuity takes. Ariele Elia, curator at the Museum at FIT and a FIT graduate, gave the first presentation and focused on copyright law and fashion. The next presentation was given by David E. Lazaro, costume curator at Historic Deerfield, and discussed New England’s adoption of Dior’s New Look style. And lastly Susan Neill, independent scholar and museum consultant, gave a much needed biography of Bob Bognand’s couture and ready to wear career. Elia, Lazaro, and Neill presented on the concept of ingenuity which is not often discussed allowing for familiar subjects to be re-explored, like copyright and the New Look.

First Elia gave an introduction to copyrights throughout fashion history.   The copying of high fashion objects was a legal practice and still is today. Elia, in conclusion to her presentation, proposed solutions to protecting intellectual property. She posed the question: Do the counterfeit copies of high fashion objects dilute or popularize the original/genuine work.

Lazaro emphasized the importance of the dissemination of idea of the New Look skirt from an exclusive garment to the the uniform of a New England college student. He thought critically about the definition of the New Look, how the silhouette changed in New England, and what the advertisements could offer as source materials to interpret the effect of the New Look on the inhabitants of New England. As a student I thought his approach was simplistic but necessary.

With a fashion history biography Neill stressed the dynamism of Bob Bugnand to transition and thrive as a designer when many of his colleagues closed up shop after the 1960s. She used extant garments and Bugnand’s design archive at FIT to articulate his marketing savvy at a time when couture houses were rapidly closing.

Portrait of Elizabeth Patterson Bonaparte, George D'Almaine after Gilbert Stuart, 1856, Maryland Historical Society, Gift of Mrs. Charles Joseph Bonaparte, xx.5.78

Portrait of Elizabeth Patterson Bonaparte, George D’Almaine after Gilbert Stuart, 1856, Maryland Historical Society, Gift of Mrs. Charles Joseph Bonaparte, xx.5.78

The rest of the day was dedicated to exploring the Maryland Historical Society (MdHS). As a native Marylander I was excited to see the new exhibits and the upgrades to their facilities. The exhibition most interesting to a fashion and textiles historian is entitled: “Woman of Two Worlds:” Elizabeth Patterson Bonaparte and Her Quest for an Imperial Legacy. The exhibition highlights Bonaparte’s live and includes several extant textile objects and a few garments which were in the permanent collection. When not viewing the permanent exhibitions at the (MdHS) many symposium goers snuck in some research at their library, myself included. I focused my energy on preliminary studies on sumptuary law and its effect on slave dress. The symposium has worked its magic to inspire new scholars and students!

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CSA National Symposium 2014: Day 2

Richard Martin. © 1988, Gerhard Jurkovic.

Richard Martin. © 1988, Gerhard Jurkovic.

The second day of the symposium seemed to go so quickly and was packed with so much information that I find it hard to create a neat package of information. The day began with a panel on the history of the CSA. What a wealth of information! The women and men involved really strove to create a foundation for the association that has thrived since. Many of the founders and initial members of CSA are apart of the bibliographies that are integral to the interpretation of dress and textiles. For example, Richard Martin, former curator at the Museum at FIT and the Costume Institute at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, was the first editor of the CSA’s journal Dress. So many anecdotes and so little time. The next speaker, Pravina Shukla, provided an overview of what the future of dress history could and should look like.

Where do you as an avid researcher, student, professor, or museum profesional think dress history can g Pravina Shukla, an Associate Professor of Folklore at Indiana University Bloomington, describes dress as the “most democratic items we make and own”. The biggest takeaway from her lecture was that dress historians should broaden their scope of research to the dress of the everyday man, woman, and child. She put emphasis on understanding and writing about cultural dress. While Shukla left many questions on the table to be answered by future research the following panel explored current and future uses of technology, database programs, and making smaller collections accessible.

The panel entitled Sharing Our Collections Online: Why and How might have a straightforward title but was overflowing with information. The five presenters in this panel were collection mangers and curators who introduced animation, metadata, database software, teamwork, and ingenuity to create innovative digital collections. While all of the institutions that presented had not completed their digital archive they had created a great benchmark in various ways. The emphasis was on fostering a community of small collections and allowing it to grow online. For more information on the amazing work of many small collections the presenter Arden Kirkland from Vassar College, put together all the links and resources mentioned in the presentation on her blog: in the near future.

As the day went on the information was more and more dense. Especially the scholars discussing unknown costume and jewelry designers of the 1930s, 40s, and 50s. As a student it is easy to give in to the designs of Worth, Poiret, Chanel, Dior, and Yves Saint Laurent but it is of great importance to look outside of the box. Pins and Needles editor Keren Ben-Horin exceeded this goal by looking at Alice Austen who was a 19th century photographer. Austen donated her collection to the Staten Island Historical Society and as a result there are many primary resources available on her, which was not always the case for the scholars that participated in the “Unsung designers”. While abundant the source material that a researcher comes across has to be synthesized. Lauren D. Boumaroun, independent scholar, has begun to work through her source material and interpret dress in science fiction films. Her preliminary approach to studying a genre that is not often explored by scholar is exceptional and will hopefully accumulate into a published work.

While I will not be including a small resources list at the end of each post I would happily put it together by request. If you have questions you would like to ask the presenters at the symposium or want a list of sources/resources please comment below or email me at

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CSA National Symposium 2014: Day 1

Here in Baltimore, MD it is the first day of the symposium and there is already so much to cover. As a new member of the Costume Society of America (CSA) there were plenty of veteran members to answer questions and bring a general warmth to the experience. Today was workshop day. To kick off the morning was Gail Alterman and June Bove’s workshop on mannequin dressing during the Napoleonic Empire. While I missed the workshop on fashioning hair from Roving the workshop on Fosshape, by Marla Miles, was both educational and fun.

2014-05-28 10.53.21

Dressing the Empire was a brief survey of fashion during the Napoleonic era and a great introduction to mannequin dressing. Gail Alterman, a costume and textile consultant, provided the survey with flair and June Bove, professor and costume consultant, provided a 101 on mannequin dressing. June is a legendary fixture at the Fashion and Textile Studies program at FIT. She has trained a generation of museum professionals. The pair’s presentation had many takeaways: Interpret historic dress in paintings wisely as the sitter’s age, the painter’s style, and the country in origin plays a part in understanding the garment, textile, or accessory; prepare the mannequin so that it supports the front and back of the garment; and understand the anatomy of the wearer. Best quote: Katherine Bonaparte was “more French than the French.”

2014-05-28 15.47.49

Marla Miles is currently a graduate student at FIT and I was thrilled to see her teaching a workshop on the Secrets of Fosshape. She worked at the Textile Museum in Washington, DC and used Fosshape to bring designs by avant garde Japanese designers to life in their exhibition entitled Contemporary Japanese Fashion: The Mary Baskett Collection. Recently Fosshape was approved as an archival material. When pressure and heat is applied to Fosshape it stiffens and can be used for a variety of purposes for mounting and displaying objects in museums. After a quick powerpoint Marla showed us how to pattern, cut, sew, and steam the fosshape forms. Hands-on activities were the best aspect of the workshop.

Below are some resources that were discussed in the workshops today. If you have questions you would like to ask the presenters this week please comment below or email me at

(Fosshape Use) Current exhibition at the Museum of the American Indian: Circle Dance
Ackerman’s Repository of Fashion [Available on]
Law Calcott, Margaret. “Mistress of Riversdale: The Plantation Letters of Rosalie Stier            Calvert, 1795-1821.” The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography. Vol. 116,        No. 4 (Oct., 1992), pp. 528-530

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Exhibition Review: Charles James: Beyond Fashion

This year, the Costume Institute has created a jewel box for colorful gems of silk and tulle designed by Charles James, the master manipulator of seams and an expert of controlled volume. The imaginative gowns, with names like “Cloverleaf” and “Umbrella,” share space with wool coats and suits of equally complex designs. From daywear to eveningwear, James used creative construction techniques to highlight and transform the woman framed within the yards of fabric.

Image by Ruth Fremson of The New York Times.

Image by Ruth Fremson of The New York Times.

The exhibition is in two galleries, the new Anna Wintour Costume Center and the special exhibition space on the first floor. The entrance to either space requires a walk past ancient sculpture, and the comparison between the carved stone and the gowns is inevitable. While both include draping, it is apparent that both the surfaces of the ancient sculptures and the surfaces of the sculpted gowns are merely decorative – as a solid core of stone supports the chiseled draping, weighty material supports James’ sculpted gowns. The dramatic evening gowns do not require a model, and for James, it appears that the body inside was merely an afterthought – a mechanism used to transport each of his sculptures through space and time into the view of the next admirer.

At the entrance to the first-floor gallery, Millicent Rogers observes each visitor with a haughty disinterest. There is an affected confidence in her posture and in her stare as she models one of Charles James’ gowns, for she is wearing fashion’s impenetrable armor – haute couture. Though her portrait begins the exhibition, her presence is soon superseded by the words of the designer placed on glass and mirrors in both galleries. The gowns are reflected in these mirrors and framed by quotes of James describing his design philosophy and process.

Image by Ruth Fremson of The New York Times.

Image by Ruth Fremson of The New York Times.

The show is not all seams and mirrors. Visitors with an understanding of clothing construction will appreciate the clever digital displays included in the show. On the first floor, robotic arms scan the gowns as digital screens display pattern pieces in a methodical format, sometimes revealing the construction process of a dress, and other times dissecting a complex pattern. In this intense gallery, the screens provide a much-needed break from the dimly lit gowns. It is almost possible, without observing the screens, to misjudge the color of some of the gowns or to miss some of the fine details.

Image by Ruth Fremson of The New York Times.

Image by Ruth Fremson of The New York Times.

Visitors may also notice some of the challenges faced in the conservation of these gowns. James frequently used heavy fabrics to help provide structure and volume; the weight of these fabrics has taken a toll on some of the gowns, as the thread tries valiantly to hold yards of fabric to upper seams of the dresses. One can only imagine the storage concerns related to gowns with so much material and volume.

In the Anna Wintour Costume Center, visitors have an opportunity to explore the designer’s range by studying selected pieces from his archive and some of his more demure designs for suits and coats. These highly impressive, more casual designs are charming, though their visual simplicity belies James’ deceptively complex construction techniques. It is these designs that are most successful, for they lack the excessively contrived curves featured in the gowns of opulent silk satin.

Many of James’ more casual designs could easily share space with some of the styles in recent runway shows. The “Great” coat, created by James in the early 1960s, would be a perfect addition to any wardrobe this coming autumn, while some of his other garments embody a tailored fullness that belongs to the past yet reminds us of emerging trends. This show is a timely one, for it seems that the “New Look” is about to become new once again.

Charles James. "Great" wool coat, c. 1961. Accession number 2009.300.451 at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Charles James. “Great” wool coat, c. 1961. Accession number 2009.300.451 at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Author’s note: This review represents my opinion. While I recently accepted a job at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, I did not have the pleasure of contributing to this exhibition and its great success. As an employee, I have had the treat of visiting the galleries before and during museum hours, and I urge you: don’t miss the items selected from the archive. They are fascinating!


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Eight Memorable Fashion Moments

By Cary O’dell

As we all know, fashion comes and…goes.  And, yet, for all its transitory properties, there comes along, once in a while, truly staggering, time-freezing incidents that forever impact not only the world of fashion, the world at large.  Fashion insiders like to give these rare occurrences the rather less-than-accurate label of “moments.”

Throughout modern fashion history there have been more than a few—the first time denim came down the runway, Halston’s introduction of ultrasuede, Galliano’s debut show (even before he joined Dior), Tom Ford’s arrival at Gucci.

And, yet, among them all, there remains a handful of times (whether we knew it at the time or not) when the world really did seem to stop and the fashion waters parted and some truly revolutionary was offered forth.

Below are, in no particular order and only in my humble opinion, fashion’s most memorable and important moments and “Moments.”

You are free to disagree….

Le smoking (1968)  by Yves Saint Laurent

YSL’s le smoking look, 1966

YSL’s le smoking look, 1966

Though incorporating elements of menswear into womenswear had been a staple of fashion dating back to Chanel’s opening of her first house in the early 1900’s and Marlene Dietrich in film in the 1930s, there was still something sleekly revolutionary when the great Yves Saint Laurent introduced his le smoking in 1966.  Inspired, obviously, by a man’s tuxedo but tailored to flatter a woman, le smoking was a new, instantly classical and stylish alternative to the “little black dress.”  At the time of its adoption, not everyone was onboard with this new masculine dressing.  Quite famously, in 1968, noted fashionista Nan Kemper was barred from entering a tony New York City eatery when she dared to show up in le smoking, complete with the jacket’s matching pants.  (Legend has it that she got around their dress code by whipping off her pants and just wearing the jacket which was just barely long enough.)  Since then, tux dressing has become a sexy and timeless trope when either paired with a white silk blouse underneath or worn over the nude.  Along with its chic elegance, le smoking also prefigured the era of androgyny that would later be so influential in music in the 1970s (think David Bowie) and 1980s (think Annie Lennox).

The Wrap Dress (1974) by Diane Von Furstenberg

The Wrap Dress, c. 1974

The Wrap Dress, c. 1974

The aristocratic looking and sounding Diane Von Furstenberg began designing clothes in 1970.  She began with a series of separates, skirts and tops, until one day she had the idea to join her wrap skirt with her signature blouse into one garment.  Made out of knitted jersey, Von Furstenberg’s first “wrap dress” appeared in 1974.  Easy to buy, fit and wear and available in a variety of colors and prints, the wrap dresses became instant best sellers; in her early days, Von Furstenberg could barely keep up with demand.  The extraordinary success of the dress has been credited to many factors.  Along with its ease and comfort, the dress was practical enough for the office but still quite feminine.  It was perfect for the new professional woman who, even if she wanted to mix it up with “the boys,” didn’t want to dress like one.  Furthermore, with more and more women delaying marriages, going to work and living on their own, self-sufficiency was the key.  The dress, put on from the back and fastened in the front, no longer required a woman to have someone around to “zip her up.”  In her memoir, “Diana:  A Signature Life,” Von Furstenberg also suggests that the dress played a role in the sexual revolution which reached its height in the 1970s:  with the garment, women could take it off as easily as they could put it on.  The dress, and its designer, became so omnipresent in the middle of the 1970s that both were featured on the cover of “Newsweek” in the summer of 1976.

Evening Gowns (c. 1952) by Charles James

Ball gowns By Charles James, photographed by Cecil Beaton, 1948

Ball gowns By Charles James, photographed by Cecil Beaton, 1948

Charles James is most, almost exclusively, renowned for his grand evening gowns.  They are like every Disney princesses’ greatest dream come to life.  The dresses often don’t even look sewn—just constructed by the placing and draping of great unbroken lengths of silk or satin.  The skirts are extravagantly full, the bodices tight, often appearing restricting.  They look extraordinary.  And their graceful movement and almost casual appearance belie the meticulous craftsmanship that went into their tailoring and infrastructure.  The American-born James showed his first collection in 1947.  He would go on to dress clients from Babe Paley to Millicent Rogers, each in superb, one-of-a-kind looks that transformed high fashion into high art.  Such voluminous use of fabric was nothing new in fashion—Mario Antoinette, anyone?—but what James did with it, and the silhouette he created in the process—created the template for a million later ball gowns, wedding dresses and prom night specials.

The Classic Chanel Suit (c. 1920) by Coco Chanel

A classic Chanel suit from the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art., 1970s.

A classic Chanel suit from the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art., 1970s.

No other designer in history has had a more profound impact on the way women dress than Coco Chanel.  She rescued women from the layer upon layer of Victorian dowdiness.  She streamlined their silhouette, she eliminated the corset, she introduced the idea of sportswear.  She even crafted the world’s greatest and most enduring designer fragrance.  But perhaps her greatest achievement was what has come to become called “The Chanel Suit.”  A bit boxy but still feminine, the classic suit is a skirt and jacket.  But Chanel’s genius is in the details.  A chain was originally embedded in the hem of the jacket to hold it in place even when the woman reaches above her head; the pockets on the outside o the jacket were handy for keys, a lip stick or cigarettes; and the back of each skirt is lined so that, no matter how often it is worn, no client ever “sits out” her skirt.  Made in jersey, tweed or quilted, the suits were comfortable yet extremely sturdy.  Chanel made them dressy by adding her famous trademarks—costume jewelry (gold chains and pearls), a two-toned shoe, brass buttons.  Since taking over as lead designer for the House of Chanel 30 years ago, Karl Lagerfeld has spun this core look off into a million variations.  Yet, in any incarnation, the basic suit remains modern looking and completely tasteful, something that can only be done when working from a starting point of such an incredible original achievement.


The “New Look” (1947) by Christian Dior

Dior’s “New Look,” 1947

Dior’s “New Look,” 1947

For fashion, it was the equivalent of the atom bomb.  Supposedly named by Carmel Snow, then the powerful editor of “Harper’s Bazaar,” Christian Dior’s luxe, wide skirt and cinched waist, which he debuted in 1947, put Paris fashion back on the map after the dark days of World War II occupation.  After more than a decade of utilitarian clothes and imposed frugality brought on by the war, Dior’s sumptuous, abundant use of fabric—sometimes yards of fabric–wrapped around the wearing in gores and cascades was alarming to the eye.  It restored luxury and a flirty femininity to women who had for too long been denied both.  Not everyone however was as taken with the style as the fashion flock.  In both France and the US, many greeted the New Look with alarm or even hostility—editorials about wastefulness were published in its wake, some wearers of the look were even attacked in the street.  In response, some designers purposely designed streamlined alternatives.  But it was not to be.  The New Look launched a new moment and resistance was futile.  The arrival of the New Look in ’47 catapulted Dior to the crest of fashion fame.  He was a legend by the end of this his first fashion show.


The Bikini (1946) by Jacques Heim and Louis Reard

The very first bikini, 1946

The very first bikini, 1946

If Dior and, earlier, Charles James each based their careers on ample bolts of cloth sumptuously unfurled, that was not the issue with the revolutionary bathing suit introduced by Heim, a fashion designer, and Reard, an engineer by training, in France in the early summer of 1946.  Though bikini-like garments can be seen depicted on the walls of ancient Roman villas and are in the evidence in the art of Pompeii, there was still, absolutely, something major about this bathing suit split in half and shrunken in size.  Certainly there was nothing before ever quite so revealing…certainly not worn outdoors and within polite society.  The bikini—which claimed its name from an atoll in the Marshall Island, the onetime location for nuclear bomb testing–was a daring look, yes, but it also is (and remains) something of a double-edged sword.  The bikini almost single-handedly introduced a sexual liberation and a sexism, a body-based pride (if you’ve got it, show it!) and a bit of body-based shame.  It laid the ground work for not only thousands of later flesh-revealing fashions but also for the fitness and exercise culture that would emerge almost immediately after and which still so strongly exists.  Perhaps Vreeland was right all along:  the bikini was the biggest thing since the atom bomb.


The Mini Skirt (c. 1955) by Mary Quant

Mary Quant in one of her own famous creations, c. 1964

Mary Quant in one of her own famous creations, c. 1964

Though it’s probably impossible to pinpoint the moment the mini was born, most fashion scholars credit its extended use and popularization to designer Mary Quant.  Quant was a Brit who made youth-oriented clothes and customized her first mini in the mid-1950s.  (One legend has it that the mini came about due to Quant’s limited finances—she could only afford to use so much fabric in each of her dress designs.)  However the mini arrived though it had a maxi effect.  Revealing that much leg was not what women—proper women!–were supposed to do.  Yet, the mini caught on by the 1960s and began being used by other designers including Courreges (who paired them with knee-high boots) and Yves Saint Laurent.  Suddenly, mod was the look.  And women, especially young women, were choosing how much they showed as they lived new more active lifestyles.  Though the mini fell out of fashion for a time in the 1970s as the midi, prairie skirts and feminism took over, the look returned, sometimes with irony attached, in the 1980s.  Today, they are a basic staple of nearly every woman’s wardrobe.


The Pouf Skirt (1988) by Christian Lacroix

Lacroix’s famous pouf, 1987

Lacroix’s famous pouf, 1987

It was the “pouf” heard around the world.  In 1986, French designer Christian Lacroix startled the fashion world with the debut of his lavish, puffy poof skirt.  Practically a return to the bustle of yore, the short skirt shapes were as extreme as the colors Lacroix chose for them.  They were “Dynasty” meets “Alice in Wonderland’s” Mad Tea Party.  And as if the grandiose silhouette itself wasn’t enough, Lacroix loved to embellish, toping his designs with lush embroideries, emphasized sleeves, and crazy contrasts of fabrics and prints.  And with time, they were the most sought-after looks on both sides of the Atlantic; everyone was wearing Lacroix.  But the pouf and some of Lacroix’s other trademarks did not always sit well some members of the fashion press.  Then “Vogue” editor-in-chief Grace Mirabella was a very vocal dissenter, accusing the designer of creating costumes, not clothes, and even being “anti-woman.”  Though still creating today, many believe Lacroix’s fashion moment has long since passed.  For better or worse, the Lacroix aesthetic has come to represent both the glories and the excesses of the 1980s and early ‘90s.



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